Measure I, the temporary fiscal emergency parcel tax, lost with 62 percent voting against it, according to preliminary results.
The tax was intended to restore and preserve city services -- including library, youth violence protection, fire and police services -- and was expected to provide around $11 million over the next five years, according to the City Attorney's summary.
The measure required a two-third approval and would have cost single-family residences $80, varying costs for multiple-unit residences, with exemptions for low-income families.
Mayor Jean Quan released a statement tonight following the measure's defeat. She said the tax was one of several steps her administration had taken to fill a $58 million budget gap.
"The City finances remain very fragile," Quan said in a statement.
"Understanding the hard economic choices we all have to make, I thank the citizens of Oakland for their consideration," she said.
Residents also voted against Measure H, which would have made the City Attorney an appointed position rather than an elected position.
Voters also defeated Measure J, which would have extended the amount of time the city has to fully fund the Police and Fire Retirement System, with the agreement of the PFRS board.