The high court on Friday struck down all three prostitution-related laws: against keeping a brothel, living on the avails of prostitution, and street soliciting.
The ruling is a victory for sex workers seeking safer working conditions because it found that the laws violated the charter guarantee to life, liberty and security of the person.
But the Supreme Court of Canada decision also gives Parliament a one-year reprieve to respond with new legislation.
Ontario's Appeal Court previously struck down the ban on brothels on the grounds it exposed women to more danger.
Friday's landmark ruling comes 34 years after the Supreme Court last upheld the country's anti-prostitution laws.