Rodney Orosco, 47, turned himself in to police and was booked on the felony charge in Solano County Jail, Vacaville police Sgt. Chris Polen said.
The girl's family became alarmed after a grandparent saw Orosco carrying the girl across the stage at the school's theater, Polen said.
The girl told her family that Orosco kissed her on three separate occasions, and text messages on the girl's phone supported the allegations, Polen said.
Orosco has taught English at Vacaville High School since 2005, Vacaville Unified School District Superintendent John Niederkorn said in a news release.
Orosco was placed on paid administrative leave on April 15 after district administrators learned of the allegations, and the girl and Orosco were interviewed, Niederkorn said. District officials then notified police.
The school district will complete its investigation into the allegations and will determine if disciplinary action, including possible termination, is warranted, Niederkorn said.
Police are asking anyone with information about the case to call Detective Drew Talton at (707) 469-6621.
In addition, the school district is asking those with information to call Randy Henry, the district's chief human resources officer, at (707) 453-6108.