Newsom made the announcement Friday. A fracking ban failed to pass the state Legislature last week.
Fracking is short for hydraulic fracturing, is a process for extracting oil embedded in rock deep underground. Environmental advocates oppose it, citing its harm to the environment and public health.
California would be the largest oil-producing state to ban fracking.
California's oil and gas industry employs about 152,000 people and generates $152.3 billion in economic output, according to a 2019 study.
Last year, Newsom ordered state regulators to ban the sale of new gas-powered cars in the state by 2035.