Rio's Galeao international airport is expected to be one of the country's busiest during the month-long tournament. The walkout also will affect Santos Dumon airport, which provides domestic service, including flights to Sao Paulo, where the first World Cup game will be held on Thursday.
A union representative said only 20 percent of workers would walk off the job for 24 hours initially.
Unions representing workers at the two airports, including check-in counter clerks and baggage handlers, are seeking raises of at least 5.6 percent.
A labour court has issued an injunction ordering the unions to maintain staffing at 80 percent of normal levels or face fines of up to $22,400.
More protests in Sao Paulo
Just hours ahead of the World Cup opener, protesters hit the streets in Sao Paulo.