Officers responded at 1:34 p.m. Sunday to a report of animal cruelty in the 100 block of Albion Street.
A witness reported seeing someone throw a Jack Russell terrier out of the window, police spokesman Officer Carlos Manfredi said.
The dog's owner then came outside to retrieve the animal and was confronted by the witness as officers arrived, Manfredi said.
The woman, whose name was not immediately available, was arrested and booked into county jail on suspicion of animal cruelty.
The dog was handed over to San Francisco Animal Care and Control. Agency spokeswoman Deb Campbell said this afternoon that the dog remained in their care and was in stable condition.