Adam Jasinski, of Delray Beach, Fla., has been charged with attempting to sell 2,000 pills in Massachusetts to a government witness.
Federal prosecutors said Jasinski was arrested Saturday after he flew to Boston and showed the witness two plastic bags filled with oxycodone pills.
The 31-year-old Jasinski won $500,000 last year on the CBS reality show.
Authorities say Jasinski told a federal drug enforcement agent that he has been using his winnings to buy thousands of oxycodone pills and has been reselling them along the East Coast for the past several months.
A call to his lawyer Tuesday was not immediately returned.