The Patriots had waived Jones on Monday after two seasons with the team.
"I felt like it was time to move on," coach Bill Belichick said Tuesday.
In Las Vegas, Jones will be reunited with Raiders interim coach Antonio Pierce, who coached Jones in high school at Long Beach Polytechnic and was on the staff at Arizona State when Jones played for the Sun Devils.
Jones thanked the Patriots in a post to social media Tuesday and said he was "blessed to be a Raider."
The Raiders waived defensive end Isaac Rochell in a corresponding move.
The Vikings (6-4) joined the Raiders (5-5) in putting a claim in on Jones, a source told ESPN's Field Yates.
The addition of Jones gives the Raiders another body at cornerback heading to Miami to face the Dolphins, who feature an explosive passing attack. Las Vegas lost Amik Robertson, who had started the previous seven games, to a concussion in Sunday's defeat of the New York Jets. Plus, rookie Jakorian Bennett, who started Las Vegas' first four games, has been slowed by a shoulder injury of late and veteran Brandon Facyson, who was expected to battle for a starting spot, has been on injured reserve since Sept. 8 with a shin injury.
Jones' role diminished with the Patriots over the past two games, and he noticeably wasn't engaged with teammates on the sideline at times -- sitting on the bench with a towel draped over his head while other reserve defenders stood on the sideline in the event they were unexpectedly thrust into action.
Jones, 25, had missed a curfew Nov. 4, the night before the team played the Commanders, a source told ESPN's Mike Reiss.
Jones played 30 snaps as a reserve against Washington and then was limited to 10 snaps in the Patriots' loss to the Colts on Sunday, when he was the closest defender in coverage on two receptions. He also was part of a coverage bust on a 31-yard touchdown in an Oct. 29 loss to the Dolphins.
The Patriots had supported Jones through charges when he was arrested June 16 after authorities at Boston's Logan Airport said they found a Glock box with two guns and ammunition inside a bag with Jones' name on it. Prosecutors dropped the gun charges in September after Jones agreed to serve one year of pre-trial probation and 48 hours of community service on other counts, according to court documents.
Jones spent the first six games of the season on injured reserve because of a hamstring injury suffered in practice. He had been a backup the past four games.
Jones was selected in the fourth round of the 2022 draft out of Arizona State and played 13 games (two starts) as a rookie while totaling two interceptions.
ESPN's Paul Gutierrez contributed to this report.