SAN FRANCISCO (KGO) -- A new study claims San Francisco and Oakland are the most "intensely gentrified" cities in the United States.
The National Community Reinvestment Coalition analyzed data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Researchers specifically looked at data from the American Community Survey from 2013 to 2017.
The study involved 20 metropolitan cities and focused on neighborhoods where longtime residents were being priced out or pushed out.
It determined "gentrification and displacement was highly concentrated, and that most low-income neighborhoods, and the vast majority of cities, continued to deal with a chronic lack of investment."
RELATED: Oakland Walking Tours aim to slow down effects of gentrification
The top five rankings in 2020 are as follows:
1. San Francisco-Oakland, California
2. Denver, Colorado
3. Boston, Massachusetts
4. Miami-Fort Lauderdale, Florida
5. New Orleans, Louisiana
RELATED: Bay Area gentrification focal point of upcoming summer film 'Last Black Man in San Francisco'
Other California cities ranked high on the list. San Jose is the eighth most gentrified city. Sacramento ranked tenth. San Diego and Los Angeles ranked 14 and 15 respectively.
The study says "COVID-19 exposed deep economic and social fault lines nationwide." It also notes that problems with gentrification have been an issue long before the coronavirus pandemic hit.